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Grand Canyon Trip

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Another trip to the national parks of US. This time in Arizona State! The Grand Canyon in AZ, USA lying on the Colorado Plateau in Northwestern Arizona is a blistering (not because of heat, though) example of soil erosion caused over more than 4000 years by Colorado river.
We organized a trip of 8 people in a Toyota Sienna. It turned out to be a fantastic van and it could easily carry the load of all the eight people and still not run out of steam like we did on the trail.
We reached the Canyon at around 7:50 am on the Saturday morning after an 8 hr drive. But getting apermit at such a short notice in summer is really difficult. So we ended up with no campgrounds in the Mather campground as well as the Backcountry CBG campground (Bright angel creek, just 0.5 miles from the Colorado river). So we first went to 10-X Campground just near the Grand Canyon Airport. This campground is on first come first served basis and takes only 10 bucks for a day. Anyway, we did not have too many choices with the campground so we had to take whatever spot we got.
Then at around 11:30 am we started on the Bright Angel Trail. According to the canyon officials the worst times to take the trails is between 10:00 am to 4:00 pm. But the brave souls that we were, our enthusiasm and inexperience with Canyon led us to believe our valor more than we had! So we began the trail with a backpack carrying water and food for each person. Every man for himself!
But we met a volunteer on the way who advised us that unless we were Marathon runners (which we are not by any stretch of imagination) going to the Plateau Point and coming back on the same day is not advisable. The thoughts that he put into our minds germinated into a tree of doubt which we could not climb.
We could reach only the 3-mile point and climbed back up. But as it turns out we had made almost 70% of the elevation and most of the inclining hike. Had we continued the further trail was not at all steep. But this is hindsight or may be a case of sour grapes or maybe a case of inflated self-esteem !?!!
Then after coming back exhausted from the trail we set up our tent and after some food went off for a well-deserved siesta. The next day after lot of deliberation from Gandhe and Sardar we made it again to the Canyon to look at the points on the South Rim itself. After going afound in the bus we saw most of the points and then headed back to LA with the same reverse route (64 S – 40 W – 15 S – 10 W)!
-Rajat.
My homepage.

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Brother HL-2040 Linux install on Backtrack 4

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I was getting CUPSD errors when trying to use my Laser Brother HL 2040 printer. But, you can install Brother HL-2040 by going to the brother website and downloading the linux drivers located here:
http://welcome.solutions.brother.com/bsc/public_s/id/linux/en/download_prn.html#HL-2040
I just installed the lpd driver using the command as follows:
$ sudo dpkg -i brhl2070nlpr-2.0.1-1.i386.deb
When printing now, just select local lpd and then select brother-HL2070 printer from the list (the drivers for both versions are same).

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Installing mplayerplug-in for Firefox-1.0.4

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I love the site www.big-boys.com but in linux it would not play so I wanted to install a browser plugin that would play wmv files.
Here’s how I went about it. First I installed mplayer using yum (I use FC4 with kernel 2.6.13.2).
yum install mplayer
Make sure the internet connection is present when you run this command.

Then I went to Linux Plugins site to get the mplayerplugin. It redirected me to Mplayer Sourceforge site.

Then I downloaded the source of mplayerplug-in from Sourceforge download page for Mplayerplug-in.
Once I did that then came the main struggle of compiling and getting this to run.

I first untarred the file with command:

tar zxvf mplayerplug-in-3.11.tar.gz
cd mplayerplug-in
./configure –with-gecko-sdk=/usr/include/mozilla-1.7.8/
make

But this resulted in a bunch of errors.
I realized that an extra slash was put in there so I opened the Makefile with vim and removed the extra slash at the end of the string /usr/include/mozilla-1.7.8/ in the Makefile.
Tried to make again but again errors this time around some include files called prtypes.h was missing.

I noticed that in the CFLAGS section of the Makefile there was a space between -I and /usr/include. Deleted those.

So opened the Makefile in vim again and added the string -I/usr/include/mozilla-1.7.8/nspr/ to the CFLAGS section of the Makefile.

Also added -L/usr/lib/firefox-1.0.4/ to the LFLAGS section coz I was getting some linker errors after that. The struggle was not over.

I got a linker error :

/usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lxpcomglue
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status

Changed the -lxpcomglue in Makefile to -lxpcom.
Finally, the compilation and the build were successful. Then the final command
cp mplayerplug-in*.so /usr/lib/firefox-1.0.4/plugins/
And now I have mplayerplug-in live and kicking!

-Rajat.

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VPNC Connection Status

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I was using the vpnc the other day on my Backtrack 4 R2 system to log in to VPN. I noticed that there was nothing that would give me the status of whether or not the tunnel was up. So I wrote a small one-liner to help me:

while [ `ps aux |grep vpnc|grep -v grep|awk '{print $2}'` ] ; do printf "Connected\r"; done

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Kerberos/Samba/AD account lockouts

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I kept getting the following errors on my AD domain in the event viewer and accounts kept locking out:
Pre-authentication failed:
User Name:      user1
User ID:                DOMAIN\user1
Service Name:   krbtgt/DOMAIN.COM
Pre-Authentication Type:        0x0
Failure Code:   0x12
Client Address: 192.168.246.134

For more information, see Help and Support Center at
http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/events.asp.

In the Directory Service logs I see the following entry:
[snip]
Active Directory could not update the following object with changes
received from the domain controller at the following network address
because Active Directory was busy processing information.

Object:
CN=User 1,OU=Testing Services Team,OU=TESTER V,DC=domain,DC=com
Network address:
e5523049-53f1-4274-858b-

c68971599acf._msdcs.domain.com

This operation will be tried again later.

For more information, see Help and Support Center at
http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/events.asp.

Turns out this happens if you have samba/winbind/AD type infrastructure. If someone has some processes running (Even if they us sudo) and happen to change their password while the process is running on unix (and using kerberos authentication), the accounts lockout because the kerberos ticket granting ticket (krbtgt) is not current and any object access is considered to be a failed login attempt. This locks out the accounts if you have account lockout implemented in your AD domain security policy.

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OpenSSL-fu

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If you want to find out the components of a site’s certificate the following commands will help you.
If you want to find if the certificate is signed with the weak MD5 signature algorithm:
$ echo | openssl s_client -connect webserver.example.com:443 2>/dev/null | sed -ne ‘/—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–/,/—–END CERTIFICATE—–/p’ | openssl x509 -text | grep “Signature Algorithm”| gawk ‘{print $3}’

$ echo | openssl s_client -connect 167.155.38.24:443 2>/dev/null | sed -ne ‘/—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–/,/—–END CERTIFICATE—–/p’ | openssl x509 -text | grep “Exponent”

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CEPT Certified!

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I finally got the Certified Expert Penetration Tester (CEPT) with a good score on the practical. There were two parts to the certification : an objective multiple choice written test and a practical. To qualify one needs 70% on the written and 70% on the practical portion of the test.
The written test was not too challenging if you follow the material taught at the InfoSec Institute’s Advanced Ethical Hacking course, however, the practical made up on the lack of challenge. The practical involved writing an unpublished stack overflow exploit for a real-world commercial software of IACRB’s choosing, a format string exploit for a custom application and writing a patch for windows binary to subvert registration mechanism on the binary. One could write the exploit in the form of a python script (that I chose), a shell script , a perl script or a binary written in a language of our choosing. The solution could be quite flexible when it came to the choice of language for writing the exploits.
Personally speaking, this was a great learning experience for me and I plan to continue learning in the interesting field of vulnerability development!